How to build an open innovation system for the hot

2022-08-14
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How can power enterprises build an open innovation system

the 13th five year development plan for the power industry was published on November 7, 2016; On November 17, 2016, the 13th five year plan for energy development was reviewed and approved; In March 2015, several opinions on further deepening the reform of the power system was launched... The introduction of a series of heavy documents also marks the market-oriented reform of the power industry has entered a new stage. Only by solving the prominent contradictions and deep-seated problems that restrict the scientific development of the power industry can we promote the sound and rapid development of the power industry and promote structural transformation and industrial upgrading. On November 7, 2016, the 13th five year development plan of the power industry was announced; On November 17, 2016, the 13th five year plan for energy development was reviewed and approved; The introduction of a series of heavyweight documents entitled "several opinions on further deepening the reform of the power system" in March 2015 also marks a new stage of market-oriented reform in the power industry. Only by solving the prominent contradictions and deep-seated problems that restrict the scientific development of the power industry can we promote the sound and rapid development of the power industry and promote structural transformation and industrial upgrading

take the road of power technology innovation with Chinese characteristics

after years of rapid development, the scale of China's power industry has ranked first in the world, and has made a series of technological innovation achievements. The power industry has embarked on a path of technology introduction, digestion, absorption and re innovation with Chinese characteristics

the reason why China has been able to embark on a path of technological re innovation with Chinese characteristics is that it has adopted the following practices:

1 Take advantage of the huge and unified domestic market and adopt the strategy of market for technology

in the early stage of promoting the great development of power industry, the Chinese government focused on the long-term development of the power industry, based on the huge domestic market, and adopted the strategy of market for technology. China's huge market demand has created the necessary conditions for the introduction of foreign advanced technology. Since the reform and opening up, China's economy has grown rapidly, the demand for power is increasing day by day, and the market demand for power technology and equipment is huge. Some multinational companies not only need to use China's market for technology industrialization, but also hope to occupy the follow-up development market of China's power industry through technical cooperation. In the specific implementation, the Chinese government requires the combination of purchasing imported equipment and technology transfer of multinational companies, forcing multinational companies to transfer advanced technology. Taking advantage of the advantages and opportunities of unified procurement and taking China's huge market as a chip, China's power industry management departments have helped enterprises obtain foreign advanced technology and management experience, and achieved the introduction, digestion and absorption of major engineering and equipment technology

2. The government organizes and coordinates the introduction, digestion and absorption of technology

the government organization and coordination is indispensable for the effective implementation of the market for technology strategy in China's power industry. By coordinating domestic enterprises to form an overall strategic buyer, the management department of China's power industry has formed a unified voice in the bidding and technology transfer negotiations of power equipment, so as to have an equal negotiating position and obtain better conditions for technology introduction. For example, in the process of power generation technology introduction, digestion and absorption, in 1980, the former state import and Export Commission, the Planning Commission and the Economic Commission issued the notice on matters related to the arrangement of technology introduction and cooperative production projects for 300 MW and 600 MW large-scale thermal power equipment, which arranged the relevant matters. In the process of DC transmission technology introduction, digestion and absorption, the Three Gorges Office of the State Council and the owner (State Grid Corporation of China) uniformly organize technology introduction negotiations, clarify the technology transfer objectives, and then implement task decomposition, organize relevant manufacturing enterprises and research institutions to introduce and integrate resources such as marine oil and gas development, ocean fishing, tourism, etc. one-on-one

3. The demand side leads the combination of production, study, research and application to ensure advanced technology and economic rationality

in the process of power technology introduction, digestion and absorption, China has taken the lead of the demander and combined production, research and application to unite the domestic production, research and research forces, which has better achieved the goal of technology introduction, digestion and absorption. Because users can coordinate all parties of industry, University and research, and pay close attention to the technical economy due to their own interests, it ensures that the introduction of advanced technology in the industry can be successfully digested and absorbed. In the process of power generation technology introduction, digestion and absorption, the former China Three Gorges Project Development Corporation organized the technology introduction of 700000 kW super large water turbine generator units, and formulated documents such as the installation standard of Three Gorges water turbine generator units with relevant departments to ensure the installation quality. In the process of introducing, digesting and absorbing 500 kV DC transmission technology, the State Power Corporation of China has led the implementation and localization of the whole project by taking charge of the complete set design of the DC transmission system and integrating all equipment components

4. Rely on major engineering projects and guide enterprise innovation through demand

in the process of major technology and equipment innovation, due to the difficulty of major equipment development, high investment and long manufacturing cycle, there are risks in the first (set) application, and there are problems in the first (set) application of achievements in technological innovation. In order to solve this problem, the power technology innovation adopts the way of relying on major engineering projects to realize localization. Relying on the Three Gorges project, the technology of giant water turbine generator set and ultra-high voltage DC transmission technology are introduced and localized at the same time of project construction. At the same time, the relevant management departments in China implement the localization strategy to promote the re innovation of enterprises. In the follow-up project of China's power construction, the relevant management departments continue to implement the localization policy to promote enterprises to carry out re innovation on the basis of imported technology, polish and improve their technological autonomy

give play to the role of market mechanism in innovation

in March 2015, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council issued several opinions on further deepening the reform of the power system, which opened the curtain of a new round of power system reform. Marketization is the focus of this round of reform. The focus and path of the new round of power reform are: in accordance with the institutional framework of controlling the middle and liberalizing both ends, orderly liberalize the price of competitive links other than transmission and distribution, orderly open the power distribution business to social capital, and orderly liberalize the power generation and utilization plan other than public welfare and regulatory; Promote the relatively independent and standardized operation of trading institutions

the further market-oriented reform of the power industry will give more play to the role of market mechanism in innovation, stimulate the vitality of market innovation, and finally realize the transformation and upgrading of the industry. The impact on industry innovation mainly includes the following aspects:

1 There is less space for direct administrative control and more reliance on market coordination mechanisms

this reform puts forward the goal of establishing and improving a market system in which the power industry has laws to abide by, the separation of government and enterprises, the main body is standardized, the transaction is fair, the price is reasonable, and the supervision is effective. By promoting the reform of power generation and utilization plans, we will give more play to the role of the market mechanism. With the continuous improvement of the marketization of the operation of the power market, the space for traditional direct administrative control will gradually decrease, and the industrial technological progress and innovation also need to shift from the traditional planned economy organization mode to rely more on market mechanism coordination

2. Marketization releases the innovation space of the industry

according to the requirements of further marketization of power resource allocation, the opinions puts forward that the sale price of electricity other than public welfare should be formed by the market step by step; Promote the reform of power trading system and improve the market-oriented trading mechanism; Establish relatively independent power trading institutions and form a fair and standardized market trading platform. And other measures. As the market-oriented resource allocation method is more flexible, it is conducive to promoting the optimal allocation of resources in the power industry and releasing the innovation space of the industry. It is expected that more application innovations will be generated in the development of the power market. As mentioned in the opinions, value-added services such as contracted energy management, comprehensive energy conservation and energy consumption consulting will be greatly developed. In addition, more application innovations will be generated in the market

3. Opening up will promote technological innovation in the industry

through market-oriented reform, many areas of the power industry are open to social private capital, including liberalizing the power distribution business to social capital, opening up fair access to electricity, and establishing a new mechanism for the development of distributed power generation. These opening measures will promote more enterprises to participate in the innovation of the power industry. With the participation of more social forces, the pace of technological innovation in the power industry is expected to accelerate, and the development of user side distributed power generation, smart electricity technology and renewable energy utilization in China will achieve rapid development

further promote the innovative development of the power industry

the opinions on further deepening the reform of the power system puts forward new requirements for the market-oriented reform of the power industry in China, where castor beans are used as raw materials for both products, which will further promote the innovative development of the power industry in China. Under the new situation, we should seize the opportunity of power market-oriented reform, spare no effort to promote industry innovation, and realize the improvement of quality and efficiency of the whole industry

1. With the increase of market-oriented innovation, we should explore the organization mode of major technology and equipment innovation under market conditions. As you need to pay attention to the improvement of the marketization degree of these places, the future engineering construction is unlikely to rely on administrative coordination, which is mainly completed by the way that the owners coordinate the manufacturing enterprises through the market mechanism. We should explore the organization mode of innovation in the market economy environment. For the government, we should make more use of energy consumption, environmental protection, safety and other standards to promote industrial technology upgrading, focus on supporting basic, cutting-edge, common technology research and development and enterprise innovation, and encourage the use of technologies, products and services with greater external benefits such as energy conservation and emission reduction through government procurement, subsidies and other means

2. Business model innovation and technological innovation develop together, and we should pay attention to business model innovation. The power market reform has brought space for the business model innovation of the power industry. The business model innovation plays a great role in promoting economic development. We should pay attention to the business model innovation of the power industry and provide better services and application experience in the fields of power generation, distribution, power sales and so on. Power enterprises are in the natural hub position of contacting the supply and demand parties, and have network infrastructure and big data resources. They should give full play to the role of interconnection, big data and other information technologies in the innovation of the power industry, tap the potential value of big data resources, and promote the improvement of service efficiency and quality of the whole industry

3. Transmission and distribution price regulation should be both economical and reasonable, and conducive to innovation. In order to promote the technological progress and innovation of the industry, the government should consider the innovation factor in the process of verifying the transmission and distribution electricity price according to the principle of allowable cost plus reasonable income. If the cost accounting is too wide, the electricity cost is too high, and if it is too strict, it is not conducive to innovation. It is suggested to comprehensively consider the factors of strategy, region and economic development, balance the goals of economy and innovation, and reasonably determine the cost

4. An open innovation system should be established to build a powerful enterprise. China's power industry has gradually developed from the planned economic system to today, forming an industrial system dominated by state-owned enterprises. To become a powerful country, some enterprises need to innovate, and innovation needs to seek the best talents and best technology in the whole society. However, the assessment pressure of maintaining and increasing the value of state-owned enterprises makes enterprises carry out business within the enterprise as much as possible in order to be large-scale. Therefore, state-owned power enterprises should be guided to build an open innovation system. On the one hand, state-owned enterprises should be promoted to carry out industry university research cooperation in China, on the other hand, state-owned enterprises should be promoted to carry out international innovation cooperation, so as to allocate innovation elements and innovation resources globally from a global perspective

How do power enterprises build an open innovation system?

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