The development trend of measurement technology an

2022-07-30
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The development trend of measurement technology and instruments in the 21st century

development trend and cutting-edge technology

measurement technology and instruments involve the measurement of all physical quantities, which is closely related to materials, engineering science and energy science. The current development trend is as follows:

(1) tracing and transmission based on natural benchmark, and realizing international comparison in different ranges. If you don't have the ability to compare, you have to rely on other countries

(2) high precision. The typical line width of the current semiconductor process is 0.25 μ m. And positive 0.18 μ M transition, the predicted line width in 2009 is 0.07 μ m。 If the positioning requires 1/3 of the line width, the accuracy of 10nm is required, and the wafer size is increasing to 300mm. This means that the accuracy of the measurement and positioning system is better than 3 × 10 to the power of -8, the corresponding laser frequency stabilization accuracy should be in the order of 10 to the power of -9

(3) high speed. At present, the speed of processing machinery has been increased to more than 1m/sec, and the instruments developed before the 1980s can no longer meet the needs of the market. For example, most of HP's interferometer market is occupied by Renishaw in the UK, because the latter's speed has reached 1m/sec

(4) high sensitivity, high resolution and miniaturization. For example, the spectrometer is integrated into a circuit board

(5) standardization. In the past, the communication interface used to use GPI and used high-pressure jet to wash the front lampshade (replacing the wiper cleaning system that may scratch the PC lampshade) B, RS232. At present, the high-performance standards that may become substitutes are USB, IEEE1394 and VXI. Now, the technology leaders try to control the technical standards, and participating in the formulation of standards is one of the basic research work of instrument development

development status of Instrument Science and technology in China

(1) due to long-term habit of imitating foreign products, China's instrument industry lacks innovation ability and can not keep up with the needs of scientific research and engineering construction

(2) China has accumulated a large number of scientific research achievements in the field of Instrument Science and technology research and equipped with speed regulating devices. Many achievements are at the international leading level and need to be screened, improved and transformed. However, the industrialization degree is very low and a complete industry with international competitiveness has not been formed

future development trend

1. development direction and discipline frontier

(1) cooperate with the technical innovation of CNC equipment (such as spindle speed and precision creation)

the main error sources of CNC equipment can be divided into geometric error (21 items in total) and thermal error. For repeated systematic errors, software can be used to correct them; For the case of large random error, the real-time correction method should be adopted. The thermal error is usually corrected by temperature measurement. One of the reasons why the market of China's machine tool industry is shrinking and a large number of foreign equipment are imported is that this technology has not been popularized and applied. Therefore, a high-speed multi-channel laser interferometer is needed: its measurement speed is more than 60m/min, and the sampling speed is more than 5000 times/sec to meet the needs of thermal error and geometric error measurement. Real time measurement of air refractive index shall reach 2 × The measurement results and length measurement results can be synchronously input into the computer

(2) monitoring and detection technology for operation and manufacturing process

sensors that comprehensively use image, spectrum, spectrum, optical fiber and other light matter interaction principles have the advantages of non-contact, high sensitivity, high flexibility and wide application range. In this field, there is a broad world for comprehensive innovation, such as vibration, roughness, pollutants, water content, processing size and mutual position

(3) technological innovation in cooperation with information industry and production science

in order to obtain living space in an open environment, there is no way out without independent innovation technology. Therefore, some projects should be selected for support according to the principles of patent right, technical content and market. According to the current development status, priority should be given to the products needed in the fields of information, life medicine, environmental protection and agriculture. Such as precision instruments and equipment for medical intervention, super-resolution lithography and cleaning methods and mechanisms in the electronic industry

2. priority areas

in the early stage of basic research, it is difficult to predict whether there will be breakthrough progress. However, when a breakthrough has been made, a transformation mechanism is needed to enter the market

(1) nano Traceability Technology and system

(2) coordinate tracking measurement system involved in installation and manufacturing

key theories and technologies: Super hemispherical reflector (n=2 or innovation in mechanism), fast and multi-channel interferometer (frequency difference of 3 ~ 5MB), two-dimensional precision tracking angle measurement system (0.2 ″ ~ 0.5 ″), general signal processing system (working frequency of 5MB), guideless semiconductor laser measurement system (resolution of 1 μ m) , thermal deformation simulation, force deformation simulation

these contents are not limited to one technical scheme, but the common points summarized in several different technical schemes. If a guideless interferometer is used, the requirements for the tracking system can be reduced; High accuracy can be obtained within 1m3 measurement range by using two-dimensional precision tracking angle measurement system; With the super hemispherical mirror, the accuracy of the 4-channel tracking scheme can be improved. It can not wait a long time for the on-site interventional manufacturing and assembly. The compensation of force and thermal deformation is necessary and needs to be fast enough. There is still a considerable gap in the current technology, so these developments are critical

scope of application: identification of new parallel mechanism machine tools, identification of aircraft assembly racks, installation of large equipment, calibration of biochip precision robots, etc

(3) non contact probe and various scanning probe microscopes

the aerospace industry has put forward urgent requirements for this, which is the key technology for the development of coordinate measuring machines in the future. At present, the contact probe has been completely monopolized by foreign countries, and the non-contact probe has not yet matured. We have the opportunity to participate in the competition. The principle of laser triangulation, which was widely used in the past, is subject to many restrictions and is difficult to make breakthrough progress, but efforts can be made in principle innovation. It should exceed 0.1 ~ 0.5 μ M resolution

(4) computer aided measurement from billet to final forming is a time-consuming and high wood production process quantity theory

standardization, modularization, compatibility and integration of signal processing system. For example, at present, ISA bus and IEEE488 port are mostly used. In the future, ISA bus may be cancelled for computers, and USB interface for notebook computers will be widely used. In the past, the instruments produced in China were satisfied with digital display, and there was no data exchange interface, so it was difficult to enter the international market. The instruments produced abroad are generally equipped with IEEE488 (GPIB) ports. RS232: USB, IEEE1394 and VXI are high-performance standards that may become substitutes at present. This turning point provides us with opportunities. At present, the working frequency band of virtual instrument is in the order of kilohertz, which is too low for interference signal processing. We can adopt the joint and complementary method to form a module series, reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of research and development on the whole. According to the existing foundation, the development of expertise is conducive to overcoming repeated research

(5) new devices, new materials

in the past, the scientific research evaluation system tended to focus on the whole machine and system and ignore materials and devices. New breakthroughs may occur in Xinguang (2) facing situation sources and new high-frequency detectors. At present, the response frequency of the detector is only the 9th power of 10, while the optical frequency is as high as the 14th power of 10. At present, the interferometer actually acts as a mixer to adapt to the shortcomings of the detector (if the response of the detector really exceeds the optical frequency, the interferometer will be useless). If the performance of the detector is significantly improved, it is also a great breakthrough for communication

(6) research and innovation on metrological characteristics of semiconductor lasers

many problems need to be solved when semiconductor lasers are used for Metrology (such as linewidth, calibration, frequency conversion, etc.). However, if many problems are solved, the semiconductor laser system will not be competitive because it is more complex than the gas laser system. Some problems are not completely solved at the physical level. For example, if a semiconductor laser can form a dual frequency, it is undoubtedly a very important characteristic. If it can sweep both frequencies and two similar frequencies, it will become a new trackless measurement tool

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